Characterizing Optimal LPWAN Access Delay in Massive Multi-RAT Smart Grid Deployments

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článek v časopise v databázi Web of Science
Massive machine-type communications services penetrating the market, such as smart grids, differ from conventional services characterized by stochastic arrival patterns. Requiring permanent end device (ED) connectivity, control centers poll EDs over regular time intervals, leading to batch message arrivals that affect the mean access delay at the air interface. In addition, the smart grid requires high reliability and network availability that can be achieved by utilizing multiple radio access technologies in EDs. Radio access technologies (RATs), i.e., narrowband internet of things (NB-IoT) and long-term evolution machine type communication (LTE-M), have been identified as promising solutions for these use-cases. This work first reports results of an extensive performance evaluation measurement campaign showing that LTE-M can be considered a preferred option and NB-IoT as a possible backup solution for smart grids. We also show that none of the selected technologies can fully meet the requirements of smart grid use cases. We then develop a theoretical model and corresponding association algorithm for balancing traffic load between two low-power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies to minimize the mean access delay. Our results demonstrate that the optimized usage of multi-RAT EDs considerably increases the number of supported EDs operating in polling-based mode. For 500EDs utilizing a single LTE-M technology, the mean access delay is over two seconds - contradicting the minimum requirements of smart grid applications. On the other hand, multi-RAT EDs running the developed algorithm increase the service capacity by up to six times (up to 3,000EDs) while still satisfying the two-second latency budget.
Klíčová slova
massive MTC
optimal associations